圣 经 探 险 者 第 二 十 课


Reading: Gospel of Mark 20课 阅读:马可福音全部

The following notes are a brief summary of the life and work of the Lord Jesus Christ. Jesusministry covered a period of about three and a half years and is summarised as follows: 以下的图是基督一生的小节。基督的传道持续了大约三年半时间。小结如下:

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To gain an overview of his life it is necessary to read the gospel records. In the above summary Matthew has been used to set out the order of events that took place. The Gospel of John is more of a thematic study, concentrating on selected events rather than following his life in detail.为了了解基督的一生,我们有必要阅读一下福音的记载,马太福音是接着大事发生的先后写的,约翰福音更加的有重点些,它着重描写了几个事件,而没有接着基督生活中的先后次序。

Some of the Main Features of JesusLife are as Follows:

The Baptism of Jesus

We have little detail of the period of Jesuslife from his birth through to his baptism at 30 years of age. His baptism introduces us also to the work of John the Baptist (see previous lesson, Matthew 3).从基督出生到他30岁受洗期间的事,圣经中少有记载,他的受洗同时也给我们介绍了约翰的工作(见前文,马太福音3)。

The Temptation of Jesus

After his baptism Jesus was led by "the spirit" into the wilderness (Matthew 4:1). Note that it was not Satan that led him into the wilderness but "the spirit". Lesson 24 on "Satan and the Devil" lays the foundation for understanding this event. The "adversary" or "Satan" who came to him challenged whether he was the "Son of God". The religious leaders of his day were the "Satan" (Psalm 109:6; Luke 22:3-5), or "Devil" (John 8:43-44). These people could never accept that Jesus was the Son of God (Matthew 26:63-66). 耶稣受洗后,被“圣灵”引到旷野(马太福音41),注意在此是“圣灵”而不是撒旦。在“撒旦与魔鬼”这一课中我们将了解此事,撒旦在此挑战“神的儿子”,基督时期的宗教领袖是“撒旦”(诗篇1096;路加福音223-5),或“魔鬼”(约翰福音843-44),这些人不接受基督是神的儿子这一事实(马太福音2663-66

We must remember that Jesus had the same human nature as all mankind. Because of this he could identify with the weakness, the trials and feelings which are common to us all (Hebrews 2:14-18; 4:15; 5:8). However the positive lesson we learn from his temptation is that he overcame by turning to the Word of God, saying: "It is written" (Matthew 4:4,7,10). Thus he overcame these temptations by a constant recourse to the Word of God, upholding Johns teaching from Isaiah 40:6-8. 我们一定记得耶稣基督有着同人类一样的性情。正因为如此,他能体恤普通人的软弱和感受(希伯来书214-1841558),然而使人鼓舞的是,基督耶稣以“经上记着”的话打退了魔鬼(马太福音44710),由于对神的话的深信不移,他抵制了试探。

The Preaching of Jesus Commences

The open and public preaching of Jesus fully commenced after John was put in prison (Matthew 4:12). This was many months after Jesusbaptism. 耶稣公开传道是在洗者约翰被囚入狱以后(马太福音412),距耶稣受洗很多个月了。

The main theme of his preaching is summarised in his discourse on the Mount (Matthew 5-8). On reading through these chapters we see the wonder of his teaching as he shows his disciples how to live a life after the example of Gods ways. It is in this discourse that Jesus introduces the aspect of God as a "Father" to his disciples (cp Matthew 5:43-48; 5:8-9; 6:31-33; 7:7-11).传道的主旨在登山宝训中揭示(马太福音5-8),在训示中,他教导门徒如何在神的道中生活,也就是在这训示中,耶稣向门徒显示了他的“父”——神的品性(马太福音542-4858-9631-3377-11)。

Jesus also gives "The Lords Prayer" as a pattern to teach his disciples how to pray (Matthew 6:9-13).耶稣同时教门徒如何祈祷(马太福音69-13)。

In his teaching he gives the deeper spiritual significance of the Law of Moses. The Law had said "Thou shalt not kill" (Exodus 20:13), but Jesus shows that if we love our neighbour we will not even be angry with him (Matthew 5:27-28). Likewise the Law had said "Thou shalt not commit adultery" (Exodus 20:14) but Jesus shows that even hidden lusts are contrary to the spirit of that law (Matthew 5:21-22). He summarises the spirit of the law and the prophets in these words: "Whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them" (Matthew 7:12). 在训示中,耶稣林摩西律法作了更深层的解释,律法中说:“人可杀人”(出埃及记2013),但耶稣却说,如果我们爱我们的弟兄,我们不可向他们动思(马太福音521-22)。就如律法上说:“不可犯奸淫”,耶稣却说即使动了淫念也是违反了律法(马太福音527-28),他总结律法和光知的通理说:“无论何事,你们愿意人怎样待你们,你们也要怎样待人”(马太福音712)。

The Gospel which Jesus Preached (Mark 1:14-15)

The main theme of Jesusmessage is termed "the gospel". The word means "good news" or "glad tidings". There were two main points to this gospel message as summarised in Acts 8:12:耶稣的传道被称之为“福音”,“福音”的意思是“好的消息”,使徒行传812中总结了福音消息中最重要的两点:

1 The Kingdom of God. Jesus spoke of this Kingdom which God had foretold would come (Luke 8:1; cp Daniel 2:44; Revelation 11:15). This is why he told his disciples to pray for it (Matthew 6:10). He also explained aspects of this Kingdom in many of his parables (Luke 19:11-27; Matthew 25:31-34). 神的王国。耶稣说神的王国必将降临(路加福音81;但以理书244;启示录1115),这就是他为何让门徒祈祝寿的原因(马太福音610),他同时在许多比喻中述说了神的王国的许多特点(路加福音1911-2)。

2 Salvation from Sin and Death through the Name of Jesus Christ. This other important aspect of the message was very personal for it related to the way that an individual might receive salvation through Jesus Christ. This is by baptism (Mark 16:15-16; Romans 5:21; 6:23). 因着基督耶稣的名得救,这一信息与个人紧密关联,因一个人可以通过归于基督得救(马可福音1615-16;罗马书521623)。

The Disciples and the Apostles

The word "disciple" comes from a Greek word indicating "one who learns from a teacher". Jesus had many disciples. Today we should be his disciples, carefully reading of his life and striving to put into practice his teaching and example. “门徒”这个词在希腊语中“是跟某人学习的人”的意思,耶稣有许多门徒。今天,我们也应成为他的门徒,阅读基督的生平,听从他的教诲。

The word "apostle" means "one who is sent as a messenger". Jesus selected from his disciples twelve men whom he called apostles for he sent them forth for a particular work associated with preaching the gospel. Their selection and names are recorded in Luke 6:13-16 and Matthew 10:1-7. The Greek word "apostello" occurs where Jesus "sent forth" the twelve (Matthew 10:5). “使徒”是被送出传递信息的人。耶稣从“门徒”中选 了十二人作为传播福音的信使,他们的挑选与姓名记录在路加福音913-16和马太福音101-7中,希腊语“使徒”这个词用于基督差遣十二个人去时(马太福音105)。

The Kingdom of God and the Kingdom of Heaven

In the gospel records both these terms occur. However by comparing the records we note that the expressions both relate to the Kingdom that will be set up on the earth when Christ returns. 福音中,这两上用法都曾出现,而这二个说法都是指耶稣重监时在地上建立的国。

An example is seen by comparing Matthew 8:11 with Luke 13:28-29. Here we are told that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob will be in "the kingdom of God" and "the kingdom of heaven". It is the same kingdom referred to in the Lords Prayer where Jesus prayed: "Thy Kingdom come; thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven" (Matthew 6:10). 其中一个例子是对比马太福音811和路加福音1328-29,在此,我们被告知亚伯拉罕等,以撒和雅各将在“神的国”与“天国”里,这与主祷文中“愿你的国降临”中的国是一个意思(马太福音610)。

Thus the Kingdom to be set up on earth is a heavenly Kingdom for it is Gods Kingdom. When "the meek shall inherit the earth" (Matthew 5:5) they will do so with such people as Abraham, Isaac and Jacob (Genesis 13:14-17; see notes on the promises to Abraham). Jesus Christ will soon return to set up this Kingdom (Revelation 11:15; Daniel 2:44), and reign from Jerusalem as King (Matthew 5:35; Jeremiah 3:17).所以,地上将建的国是天国,因为它是神的国。当“活的人承受地土”时,他们将与亚伯拉罕,以撒和雅名一起,基督耶稣不久就将重临建立神的国(启示录1115;但以理书244),并在耶路撒冷为王(马太福音535;耶利米书317)。

The Miracles of Healing which Jesus Performed

These miracles of healing of sickness and even raising the dead had a two fold lesson. They were:治愈病人和使死人复活有着双重的意义:

  • A sign that God was working through him. The remarkable signs testified that God had sent him and showed that he was the "Messiah" or "Christ" foretold in the prophets. The Hebrew word "Messiah" and Greek word "Christ" mean "anointed", and Jesus was anointed by the Holy Spirit that he might perform these miracles while preaching the gospel (Isaiah 61:1; cp Matthew 11:4-6; Luke 4:16-21; also Isaiah 42:1-3,7; cp Matthew 12:17-21). These works bore witness to the fact that he was sent of God (John 5:36; 10:25; Acts 2:22). 通过耶稣,神的力量在显示,这些非凡的奇迹都验证了基督是神所差遣的,是“默西亚”,希伯来语中的“默西亚”与希腊语中的“基督”都是“所育”的意思,基督是各灵所育的,当他传播福音时,他有能力行奇事(以赛亚书611;路加福音416-21;以赛亚书421-37;马太福音1217-21),这些事都是耶稣是受神差遣的见证。
  • A sign that sin and death can be removed through him. Sickness, disease and death have come upon mankind through the sin of Adam and Eve. All will die and return to the dust. The lesson of the miracles of Jesus is summarised in Matthew 8:16-17, which is quoted from Isaiah 53:4. Jesus had compassion on those who were suffering for he also was "touched with the feeling of our infirmities" (Hebrews 4:15). His healing of sickness and death by the power of God testified that he was sent to deliver man from the root cause of his problem, which is sin. Consider the miracle of healing the man with palsy (Matthew 9:1-8; Psalm 103:3). 通过耶稣可以消除罪与死,邪恶、疾病与死亡由于亚当与夏娃的罪降临人类,所有的都将死亡,重归于土。以赛亚书534与马太福音816-17对这些奇事的意义作了总结。基督怜悯受苦的人,他同时“体恤我们的软弱”(希伯亚书415),他治愈病人,使死者复活,验证了他将从根本的消除人的罪。他治愈瘫痪的人(马太福音91-8;诗篇1033)。
    Through Jesussinless life and perfect obedience to God, even unto death, God raised him to life again to be the Saviour of all mankind (2 Timothy 1:9-10). Through him we have the hope of resurrection from the grave and deliverance from mortality and corruption (1 Corinthians 15:20-23, 50-58). The miracles of healing taught this wonderful lesson.由于基督无暇的生活及对神的无限忠诚,神使他复活成为人类的救主(提摩太后书19-10),通过耶稣,我们有了重生的希望(哥林多前书1520-23)。这些奇迹给了我们非凡的启示。

The Parables of Jesus

Often Jesus spoke in parables. Why did he do this? The reason is given in the explanation of the Parable of the Sower (Matthew 13:10-16).耶稣常作比喻,他为什么这样做呢?在马太福音1310-16中对此作出了解释。

A parable is a story with a deeper spiritual meaning that is to be drawn from the simple details. Parables were used to separate between the genuine disciples and those who were drawn to Jesus purely by the outward show of miracles. The prophets foretold that Jesus would use this method of teaching (Isaiah 6:9-10; cp Matthew 13:10-17; Psalm 78:2; cp Matthew 13:34-35).比喻是从简单的事例中得出深刻的道理,比喻被用来分别真正的门徒与那些仅仅见到了耶稣所行的外在的奇迹而靠近他的人,先知也预告了耶稣将用这个方式教导群众。(以赛亚忆69-10;诗篇782;马太福音1334-35)。

The Parable of the Sower (Matthew 13:1-23)

The story is simple and clear, but the spiritual lesson is very important. The seed sown was the "word of God" (v19). 故事非常的简单,但寓意却很深刻。“撒下的种”就是“神的话”(第19节)。

Individuals fall into four categories:人落入以下四类:

1 The hard wayside 落在路旁的

2 The stony ground 落在土浅石头地里的

3 The thorny ground 落在荆棘里的

4 The good ground 落在好土里的

These four kinds of ground represent the four different kinds of people who hear the gospel. The lesson of this parable is powerful and pointed. How true it is that as the thorns and thistles choked the growing seed, so riches and the care for things of this life can choke those who are not fully motivated by faith and love. Only the good ground responds to bring forth fruit. We need to seriously approach the reading of the Word of God and let it grow in the good soil of our minds, that our lives may be moulded and we may bring forth fruit to Gods glory. 这四种地代表了听到福音后有不同瓜的四种人。这则比喻的教训是明显的,荆与蓟怎样的挤住生长的种子,财富与物欲也就怎样地挤住那些没有完全凭信行事的人,只有好土才能结出好果实,我们只有仔细聆听神的话,让它在心里发芽,我们的生活才会丰富,才能体现神的荣耀。

The Nobleman Going into a Far Country (Luke 19:11- 27)

Again the story is simple on the surface but the lesson is very important. The disciples expected the Kingdom to be set up then. They did not understand that Jesus would be crucified and then go to heaven for a long period before he returned to set up the Kingdom on earth. This parable was given so that his disciples might come to appreciate this. 同样的,表面看来,这故事仍旧非常简单,但道理同样很深刻。门徒们以为神的国快要显出来,他们并不知道耶稣将在十字架上受难,并且在重临前会有很在三段时间,耶稣就设了这个比喻,使门徒们对此开始有所理解。

The Lord Jesus Christ will soon return to the earth. We need to follow the example of the faithful servants who toiled diligently in their Lords work while he was away. If we follow this example then we too will receive the words: "Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities" (v17). 主耶稣基督不久将重临这地。我们应以那些在耶稣离开时仍旧忠信的仆人为榜样,假如我们这样做了,我们同样会得到这样的评价—“好!良善的仆人,你既在最小的事上有忠心,可以有权柄管十座城”(第17节)。

Therefore as we read the parables of Jesus we need to look for their spiritual lessons, and take heed to his teachings that we may be among his true disciples. 因此,当我们阅读这些比喻时,我们应理解它们内含的意思,并跟随耶稣的教导,成为他真正的门徒。


Summary Points

  • Jesuspublic ministry covered a period of three and a half years from his baptism by John through to his crucifixion.从耶稣受洗到受难,他公开传道了大约三年半时间。
  • The temptation of Jesus highlighted that he was tempted like all men, yet without sin (Hebrews 4:15). He overcame his trials by a "thus it is written" (Matthew 4:4,7,10), thereby showing the way whereby all who follow him must also strive to overcome. 耶稣象众人一样受试探,但他没有犯罪(希伯来书415),他坚信“经上所说”的,以此通过了试探(马太福音44710),所以,跟从他的人也要象他一样努力通过试探。
  • The message which Jesus taught is termed "the Gospel", a term meaning "good news" or "glad tidings". This good news is summarised in two main points as expressed in Acts 8:12 耶稣所传的消息被称为“福音”,意思是“好的消息”,这些好的消息,被总结成二点(使徒行传812)。
1. The Kingdom of God that will be established when Jesus returns to the earth. 耶稣重临时神的国将建立。
2. Salvation from death and the forgiveness of sins through the name of Jesus Christ. 因着耶稣的名,我们可获拯救。
  • The miracles that Jesus performed were a sign that he was sent of God (John 5:36; 10:25).耶稣所行的奇事表明了他是神差来的(约翰福音5361025)。
  • The parables that Jesus used in his teaching were designed to cause people to deeply reflect upon his message and to apply the lessons in their own lives (Matthew 13:10-17). Many of the parables were related to the coming Kingdom of God; eg "The parable of the Nobleman going into a far country" (Luke 19:11-27).耶稣传道中所用的比喻是让人们更好地了解他的训示,使之瓜在他们的生活之中(马太福音1310-17),许多比喻与神的国的来临有关,例如“贵胄去远方的比喻”(路加福音1711-22)。


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