圣 经 探 险 者 第 十 二 课


Reading: Exodus 3 & 12 12课 阅读 出埃及记312

Jacobs Name is Changed to Israel (Genesis 32)

The name of the nation of Israel is derived from the name which God gave to Jacob. Jacob was returning to the land of Canaan from Padan-aram where he had married his two wives, Leah and Rachel. He now had eleven sons and large herds and flocks. On his way he was met by an angel of God. In the ensuing incident, the angel told Jacob: "Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed" (Genesis 32:28). This was repeated a little later (Genesis 35:9-12). The name Israel means "prince with God". 以色列国这一称呼源自于神娲于雅各的名年,雅各在巴且·亚兰与他的两个妻子拉结和利亚结婚后,想回到迦南地去。那时他有大批的牲畜和财物,并有了十一个儿子,在路上他碰见了一个天使,天使对他说:“你的名不要再叫雅各,要叫以色列,因为你与神与人较力,都得了胜”(创世纪3228)。这后来又重复了一次(创世纪359-12),以色列这名字的意思是“神的王子”。

Thus Jacob returned and settled in the land of Canaan. The account of the incidents associated with the life of Jacob are found from Genesis 25-49. As we read through these chapters we see the development of his trust and faith in God. In his earlier years he had often planned and plotted to achieve his desired purpose, but finally he realised that complete trust in God alone was the answer to all lifes trials. Thus we find his name listed among the faithful in Hebrews 11:21.雅各回来后就住在迦南,雅各生平的事记载于创z世纪25-49中,我们阅读这几章时,可以发现雅各对神的信不断发展,在他早年时,他经常为了达到自己的目的而计划、算计,但最后他认识到只有全心全意地信神才是他所有追求的答案,因此我们希伯来书11-12中所列出的义人名单里,能找到雅各的名字。

"Thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs"

We recall these remarkable prophetic words that God spoke to Abraham (Genesis 15:13-16). There God had foretold that Abrahams seed would go into Egypt but in the fourth generation would return to Canaan. As we read through the life of Jacob and Joseph we see how these words were so accurately fulfilled.我们回忆一下神对亚伯皖罕所说的预言(创世纪1513-16),神预示了亚伯拉罕的后裔将在埃及寄居四百年,然后才能得以直返迦南地,当我们阅读雅各与约瑟的生平时,这些预言无一不准确应验。

Joseph - The Saviour of Israel (Genesis 37-50)

The narrative of the life of Joseph, and the remarkable way whereby God used him to work salvation for his family (Genesis 45:4-11), is a very moving story which you will enjoy reading. Added to this we are impressed with the faith and godly life of Joseph when faced with trial and temptation. 约瑟生平的叙述,以及神如何使他拯救他的家庭(创世纪454-11),读起来仿佛一个感人的故事,除此之外,我们还需看到约瑟是怎样以他的信来应付各种试验与诱惑的。

Josephs faith, perfected through the trials of his life, is clearly seen when on his death bed in Egypt he took an oath of the children of Israel. He made them swear that when God visited His people to deliver them as He had promised, they would take his bones with them and bury him in the Land of Promise (Genesis 50:24-26; cp Hebrews 11:22). He implicitly believed the words that God had spoken to Abraham that his seed would be strangers in a land that was not theirs (Egypt), but that after many years of servitude God would deliver them and bring them back to the land He had promised them (Genesis 15:13-16).约瑟的信,贯穿了他的一生,他临终时,使雅各的子孙起誓,把他的骸骨搬回去葬在神许的土地上。并说神一定会使他们出埃及(创世纪5024-26;希伯来书1122),他坚信神对亚伯拉罕所说的话,即“你的子孙必寄居别人的地(埃及),但400年后,他们会从那里出来”(创世纪1513-16)。

Do we have this same faith in the promises that God made to Abraham? Do we believe that the promises made to Abraham will be fulfilled with the return of Jesus Christ? If we do, we need to show our faith by baptism (Galatians 3:26-29), and then endeavour to live a godly life in this present evil age.我们对神的许诺有着同样的信吗?我们相信神对亚伯拉罕的许诺会由基督耶稣完成吗?如果是的话,我们就应领先归于基督(加拉太书326-29),并在现今这时代中度神悦的生活。

Israels Deliverance from Egypt (Exodus 1-14)

The account of the hard bondage and servitude of Israel in Egypt is set out in Exodus chapters 1-2. Yet blended into this account is the example of the faith of the parents of Moses. God blessed their faith and Moses was delivered from death that he might be the deliverer of Israel from Egypt (Hebrews 11:23-28; Acts 7:17-36). His parentsinstruction concerning God and His purpose in his early years became the basis of Mosesfaith. He, like Joseph, believed that God would deliver Israel from Egypt according to his word to Abraham (Genesis 15:13-16).出埃及记1-2章中描述了以色列人所受的虐待,然而同时也描述了摩西的父母的信,神祝福他们的信,摩西就得以存活,后来就领以色列人出了埃及(希伯来书1123-28;使徒行传下:17-36),父母的信或为孩子的信的基础,摩西和约瑟一样,坚信神会使以色列人出埃及(创世纪1536-16)。

In Exodus 2 we read of the birth of Moses and of the incidents that caused him to flee for his life from Pharaoh in Egypt into the wilderness of Midian near to Mt Sinai and Mt Horeb.出埃及2中,我们读到了摩西的出生以及他为何从埃及法老处逃到了米甸的旷野,就是靠近西秦山和何烈山的地方。

God Reveals His Purpose and Name to Moses (Exodus 3)

This chapter commences with the impressive miracle that caused Moses to turn aside to look at the burning flame in the midst of a bush, yet the bush was not being consumed (v1-6). It was "the angel of the Lord" (v2) that spoke with Moses, yet this angel is spoken of as "the Lord" (v4), and he further declares: "I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob" (v6). From this we see that throughout the Bible the angels, who are the messengers of God, speak as if they are God Himself because they represent Him, speaking with His authority and executing miracles with the power He has given them (Psalm 103:20-21; 104:4; Hebrews 1:14). 摩西看到了荆棘丛中的火焰,但荆棘却没有毁(第1-6节),显现给摩西的是“神的使者”(第2节),然而这使者却以“神”的身分说话,他说:“我是亚伯拉罕的神,以撒的神,雅各的神”(第6节),从这儿我们可知在圣经中,天使是神的使者,但却以神的身分说话,因为他们代表神,神赋于他们权威,同时也赋于他们施行奇迹的能力(诗篇10320-211044;希伯来书114)。

Thus, although we read that the Lord or God was to go with Moses to deliver Israel, we now realise that it was an angel sent by God to do this work (Acts 7:30-35; Exodus 3:7-10). The angels are therefore a manifestation of God to man when they reveal themselves in this manner. 所以,虽然我们知道神领以色列人出埃及,但实际上是天使去做这一工作(使徒行传730-35;出埃及记37-10),在此意义上,天使即神的显现。

We see this same principle in the life and work of the Lord Jesus Christ, for he came to reveal the character and work of God to man. In fact he was given the title "Emmanuel" which means "God with us" (Matthew 1:23). Though Son of God he denied that he was God, but rather showed that he was doing the will and work of God (cp John 5:19,30,43). When Philip asked Jesus, "Shew us the Father", Jesus answered: "Have I been so long time with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip?" (John 14:8-9). Jesus was telling Philip that as he was doing the works of God and speaking the words of God he was therefore manifesting God to them. As the angels manifested God to those to whom they revealed themselves, so Jesus did likewise. Thus Jesus could say: "I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me" (John 17:6). He could also say "I and my Father are one" (John 10:30), for they were one in character and purpose, though separate as individual beings.同样的道理适用于耶稣的救赎工作。他被称为“以马内利”,意思就是“神与我们同在”(马太福音123),虽然为神的儿子,他否认自己是神,但他却以神的意愿行事(约翰福音5193043),当腓力语主耶稣“将父亲显现给我们”时,耶稣说:“我与你们同在这样长久,你还不认识我吗?”(约翰福音148-9),主说父的话,以父的意愿行事,那是将文显现给我们,就象天使将神显现给人一样,所以主耶稣说:“你从世上赐给我的人,我已将你的名显明于他们”(约翰福音176),他也说:“我与父原为一”(约翰福音1030),虽然个体上分开了,但是性质与目的并无改变。

Yahweh - The Name of God

Moses listened as the angel explained Gods purpose to deliver Israel from bondage in Egypt. Moses was the one chosen to perform this work on Gods behalf with the angelic assistance (Exodus 3:7-12). Moses was a very meek man (Numbers 12:3) and felt inadequate for this great task. He realised that the Israelites would ask who the God of their fathers was and what was His name. In Egypt Israel had become accustomed to the names of the many gods of Egypt whose names were associated with their supposed work and position. They would therefore ask Moses the name of the God who was to deliver them. 神遗摩西领以色列人出埃及,摩西即在天使的协助下去做这一工作(出埃及记37-12)。但他是一个非常温顺的人,感到自己无法胜任这一艰巨的任务,他想到了以色列人也许会问他们祖宗的神叫什么名字,因为以色列人在埃及听到了许多埃及传说中的诸神的名字。他就这样对神说了。

The answer given was a most instructive reply - a reply that summarises in one word the purpose of God with mankind. In our Bibles it may seem rather strange but let us pause and consider what was said and what it meant.神的回答极具意义,它以一个了概况了神对于人类的目的,在圣经中,这也许很奇怪,但首先让我们有一下神说的话的意义吧。

Verse 1414

"I am that I am" The Hebrew is "Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh". Now these words have been erroneously translated "I am that I am". The verb is in the future tense and therefore should be rendered "I will be who I will be". This phrase actually expresses Gods purpose in a very simple manner: "I (God) will be (manifest in, or will become) who I will be (manifest in, or will become)". “我即是我”,希伯来语为“Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh”,这词很可能被错误地译为“我即是我”,因为希伯来语中,这句话的动词应是将来时态,所以,实际上神以一个简单的方式表达了他的目的,即“我将在那些信我的人中体现。”

We have seen that God has manifested Himself in the angels. He has also revealed or manifested Himself in His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ. In the future God will bring His purpose to fulfilment by manifesting Himself in those who obey Him by granting them immortality. His purpose is to develop a family of sons and daughters, all who will reflect His glorious character. Those who develop His ways in their lives now will ultimately share His divine nature. In developing this family He sent forth His Son who manifested the character or moral glory of God to mankind (John 1:14), and in his obedience unto death provided the basis for the forgiveness of sins. This work of God to gather together in one all who believe in Him through His Son is set forth as follows in the words of Jesus: 我们前面已经知道神通过天使体现他自己,神同样在他的爱子,这耶稣身上体现,在将来,神将体现在那些信从他而获永生的人身上,以此完成神对于人类的目的,神的儿女要体现他的荣耀,那些以神悦的方法处事的人将分享他的神圣,为些神遣他的爱子主耶稣,以牺牲来提供罪的赫克,这一将信神的人归于一的工作,即象主耶稣所说的:
"Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also which shall believe on me through their word; That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us: that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one: I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me." (John 17:20-23)“我不但为这些人祈求,也为那些因为他们的话信我的人祈求,使他们都合而为一,正如你父在我里面,使他们也在我里面,叫世人可以信你,差了我来,你所赐给我的荣耀,我已赐给他们,使他们合而为一,象我们合而为一,我在他们里面,你在我里面,使我们完完全全地合而为一,叫世人知道你,差了我来,也知道你爱他们如同爱我一样”(约翰福音1720-23)。

Gods purpose is to unite together "in one" with Himself all who strive to develop His glorious character in their thinking and life. Therefore such expressions as Acts 15:14, "God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for His name", speaks of Gods purpose to gather people to Himself that they might not only reflect or manifest His character in their lives now, but ultimately share His glorious immortal nature in the future.神的目的是让那些体现神的荣耀的人合而为一,正如使徒行传1514中所说:“神当初眷顾外邦人,从他们之中选取人归于自己名下,”那些人不仅在现时体现神,更会在将来分享神的永远的荣耀。

Gods purpose that "all the earth shall be filled with My glory" (Numbers 14:21) will then be fulfilled when the earth is populated only with the immortalised faithful followers of God and Jesus Christ.神的最终目的“地上将满了我的荣耀”(民数记1421)只有在地上满了那些追随神与主耶稣的人时才会实现。

Yahweh - "He Who Will Be"

In Hebrew God said of Himself, using the 1st person, "Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh", meaning "I will be who I will be". However when Moses spoke to the people he used the 3rd person, saying "He will be" or in the Hebrew "Yahweh". Thus Yahweh is the Name that God has chosen for Himself to memorialise His purpose (Hosea 12:5). This Hebrew word "Yahweh" is printed in our Bible in the following way: LORD or GOD. The translators have thereby endeavoured to indicate when this Hebrew word occurs. 神说到自己,希伯来后,文中是“Ehyeh Asher Ehyeh”,用的是第一人称,而摩西转述时,用的是第三人称——“他将成为”即是希伯来语中“耶和华”所以“耶和华”是“神可纪念的名”(何西阿书125),“耶和华”在圣经中被表达为“主”或“神”。

Yahweh, therefore, is the Name by which God has chosen to be known. Because this Name enshrines His glorious purpose there is a blessing to those who meditate upon His Name and all that it speaks of (Malachi 3:16-17).所以“耶和华”是神选择的,使人知的名,因为这名体现了化的荣耀,所以神祝福那些敬重他,罹他名气人(玛拉基书316-17)。

Yahweh Delivers Israel from Egypt (Exodus 4-13)

Yahweh sent Moses to Pharaoh with the message: "Thus saith Yahweh, Israel is my son, even my firstborn: And I say unto thee, Let my son go, that he may serve me: and if thou refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay thy son, even thy firstborn" (Exodus 4:22-23).耶和华遣摩西对埃及法老说:“耶和华这样说,以色列是我的儿子,我的长子,我对你说过:容我的儿子去,好事奉我,你还是不肯容他去。看哪,我要杀你的长子”(出埃及记422-23)。

However Pharaoh would not hearken to Moses nor obey Yahweh. Therefore, by the hand of Moses, He brought ten dreadful plagues upon Egypt. These ten plagues were:然而法老不听从耻和华的吩附,因此,神就借着摩西之手,给埃及降了十个灾祸,它们是:

1 Water turned to blood、血灾 6 Boils、疮灾
2 Frogs、蛙灾 7 Hail、雹灾
3 Lice、虱灾 8 Locusts、蝗灾
4 Flies、蝇灾 9 Darkness、黑暗之灾
5 Murrain of beasts、畜疫之灾
10 Death of the Firstborn、所有头胎的都死

The Passover (Exodus 12)

The last and most memorable plague is termed "The Lords Passover" (v11). This final and dramatic exhibition of destruction upon Egypt brought the deliverance of Israel from the bondage in which they were held, in fulfilment of Gods words to Abraham regarding his seed (Genesis 15:13-16). 最后一个的灾祸被称为“耶和华的逾越节”(第11节),这个灾祸的降临使以色列人最终摆脱了埃及人的奴役,实现了神对亚伯拉罕后裔的预言(创世纪1513-16)。

The details are recorded in Exodus 12. Each family or group of families was to select a lamb without blemish and at the appointed time kill it (v5-6). They were then to sprinkle its blood upon the doorposts and lintel of their house (v7). During the evening they were to remain within the house and eat the roasted lamb (v8-11).细节纪录在出埃及记12中,每一家要选一只无残疾的羊羔,在指定的时间宰杀,(第5-6),把血涂在房屋左右的门框与门楣上,晚上他们应留在屋里,吃烤过羊羔肉(第8-11节)。

While Israel was doing this the angel of Yahweh passed through the land of Egypt. The blood on the door was a "token" or sign that the family within had slain their lamb (v12-13). The angel of Yahweh who was sent to destroy the firstborn, on seeing the blood would therefore pass by that house. The houses of Egypt that had no blood upon their doors suffered the dreadful punishment of the slaying of their firstborn.以色列人这样做的时候,耶和华的使者巡行埃及地,房屋上的羔羊血是一个“记号”,耶和华的使者在击杀埃及地一切头生的时,看见这血就越过去,灾祸仅仅降给没有在房屋上涂羔羊血的埃及人。

Thus Israel were delivered through the blood of the lamb. It was to be a memorial to them from that time forward (v14).所以以色列可以说是借着羔羊血出了埃及的,从那时起,就开始纪念这一日子(第14节)。

Christ our Passover (1 Corinthians 5:7-8)

The lessons that the Passover forshadowed relate to the redemptive work of the Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is "the Lamb of God which taketh away the sins of the world" (John 1:29, 36). It is through his shed blood that we are redeemed (1 Peter 1:18-19).逾越节的启示与基督的救赎工作有关,他是“神的羔羊,除去世人罪孽的”(约翰语音12936),通过基督的宝血,我们才获救(彼得前书118-19)。

The apostle Paul states that Jesus Christ is our Passover, meaning that when we are symbolically covered by his blood in baptism, we too are delivered from the bondage of sin and death (1 Corinthians 5:6-8), as Israel were delivered from the bondage of Egypt. 使徒保罗称基督是我们逾越节的羔羊,我们受洗时被基督的宝血覆盖,借此我们脱了罪与死的惩罚(哥林多前书56-8),就象以色列人借羔羊血脱离了埃及人的奴役一样。

As Israel remembered that dreadful night that brought their deliverance from Egypt by keeping the Passover Feast each year, so Jesus has asked all who have been delivered from sin through his blood to remember him. In the last supper with his disciples he gave them bread and wine and asked that they partake thereof regularly in memory of his sacrifice (Luke 22:19-20; 1 Corinthians 11:23-26).以色列人以逾越节纪念脱离了埃及,因此基督要求每个因他的血而获救的人同样记住他,在他最后的晚餐中,他给门徒吃砚与酒,以此使他们记住他的牺牲(陪加福音2219-20;哥林多前书1123-26)。

Crossing the Red Sea (Exodus 14-15)
The dramatic tragedy of the slaying of Egypts firstborn gave Israel the opportunity to depart from Egypt. There was a multitude, thought to total around two million in all, who left Egypt (Exodus 12:37-38). However it was not long before Pharaoh determined to pursue Israel and capture them again (Exodus 14). This brought forth the remarkable miracle of the opening of the Red Sea so that Israel could cross to safety. Mosesdramatic words on that occasion were: "Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of Yahweh" (v13). Yahweh opened the sea and Israel crossed to safety but when the Egyptians tried to follow them the waters closed upon them and destroyed them all (v30-31). 埃及所有一切头生的被击杀之后,以色列人得以离开埃及,总共大约有二百万人(出埃及记1237-38),然而不久,埃及法老又遣人追赶以色列人,试图抓回他们(出埃及记14),神就劈开红海使以色列人通过。摩西那时对惧怕的以色列人说:“不要惧怕,只管沾住!看耶和华今天向你们所要施行的救恩”(第13节),耶和华分开了红海水,以色列人得以安全通过,当埃及法老的军队试图追随时,水又合上,把法老的军队淹死了(第30-31节)。

A Symbol of Baptism

The apostle Paul saw, in the deliverance of Israel as they walked between the walls of water of the Red Sea to safety on the other side, the symbol of baptism (1 Corinthians 10:1-2). How fitting this figure is. When we are baptised we leave our old way of life behind and rise again to a new life after the example of Jesus Christ (Romans 6:3-7).使徒保罗说以色列人过红海是受洗的表征(哥林多前书101-2),当我们受洗时,我们抛弃了以往的生活,追随基督而重生(罗马书63-7)。

Trials in the Wilderness - the Journey to Mt Sinai (Exodus 16-19)

God had dramatically delivered Israel from Egypt. Now He was to test their faith to see whether they would believe His promise that He would bring them back to the land of their fathers (Genesis 15:13-16). They lacked food and murmured against Moses. God supplied manna to sustain them (Exodus 16). That manna was typical of the Lord Jesus Christ who was the bread of life (John 6:27-63). They lacked water and once again murmured. Again God responded by supplying water (Exodus 17). That water symbolised Christ (1 Corinthians 10:3-4) who is the water of life (John 4:10-14). In these tests Israel failed to exhibit that faith which pleases God (Deuteronomy 8:1-6; Hebrews 11:6).神使以色列人出了埃及,神要度一下以色列人是否相信他对以色列人祖先所许的承诺(创世纪1513-16),他们在旷野中缺少食物,就埋怨摩西,神就从天上降下吗哪给他们(出埃及记16),这吗哪就象征着基督是我们生命的粮(约翰语音627-63),他们又缺水,就又一次埋怨摩西,神就降给他们水解渴(出埃及记17),这水就象征着基督是我们生命中的水(约翰福音410-14),在这些考验中,以色列人没有凭着信来愉悦神(申命记81-6;希伯来书116)。

There are many lessons and warnings for us in Israels wilderness wanderings (1 Corinthians 10:1-13). Do we trust in God and believe that He will provide us with that which is necessary to sustain us in our pilgrimage to His Kingdom? (Matthew 6:25-34).以色列人在旷野中徘徊的经历给了我们很多教训(哥林多前书101-13),我们真的坚信神在我们朝圣他的国的旅途中,会提供一切所需的吗?(马太福音625-34)。

Summary Points

  • Jacob had his name changed by God to Israel (Genesis 32:28).雅各改名为以色列(创世纪3228

  • Joseph was the one chosen by God to protect and deliver his brethren when they went down into Egypt. At the end of his life he believed that God would deliver Israel from Egypt and so he asked that they carry his bones out when they departed (Genesis 50:24-26).约瑟被神选中保护他的兄弟下埃及,在他临终时,他坚信神会使以色列人出埃及,所以他要子孙在离开埃及时,带上他的骸骨(创世纪5024-26)。

  • Moses was raised up to deliver Israel from Egypt (Exodus 1-2).摩西被召选领以色列人出埃及(出埃及1-2

  • God, through an angel, appeared to Moses at the burning bush at Mount Sinai. There God revealed His memorial Name to Moses - "I will be who I will be", or "Yahweh" (Exodus 3:12-15). This name expresses Gods purpose through His Son to gather together into one all those who strive to manifest His Name in their lives by faithful and loving obedience to him (John 17:20-23). God is still taking out of this world "a people for His Name" (Acts 15:14).神通过天使在燃烧的荆棘中向摩西重现,那时神显现了他的名一“我将在那些信我的人中体现”或者希伯来“耶和华”(出埃及记312-15)。这名表达了神对于人的目的,他通过他的爱子使那些遵从他,信他的人合而为一(约翰福音1720-23),神仍在“选取人归于自己名下”(使徒行传1514)。

  • The Passover lamb, which was slain to provide deliverance for Israel from Egypt, points forward to the deliverance from sin and death that is available through the blood of Jesus Christ (1 Peter 1:18-19; 1 Corinthians 5:7-8).逾越节的羔羊血使以色列人最终得以出埃及,预示了我们可以借基督的宝血脱离罪与死(彼得前书118-19;哥林多前书57-8)。

  • The crossing of the Red Sea has a typical significance pointing forward to baptism (1 Corinthians 10:1-2).穿越红海有着典型的象征意义,预示着我们的领洗(哥林多前书101-2


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